Mining is the process where nodes in the Bitcoin Network assemble newly broadcast Bitcoin Transactions into a data structure called a block. Nodes then compete to append their block to the public blockchain by repeatedly mutating the block’s header data structure, usually by incrementing the nonce field, then hashing it in an attempt to find a value that satisfies a difficult proof-of-work.
When a node finds a valid proof-of-work hash for a block, it broadcasts the block to all nodes. Other nodes accept this block only if all the transactions in it are valid and have not yet been included in a block. Other nodes in the network then express their acceptance of the block by building upon it to create the next block in the chain.
The blockchain structures itself in a manner that is computationally and economically impractical to modify by any one entity. Due to this, transactions included in the blockchain are considered immutable. In addition to this quality, the blockchain establishes an authoritative order of these transactions throughout the network by establishing which out of any pair of conflicting transactions was seen first, thereby protecting users from attempts to re-spend coins that have already been spent elsewhere. This is the key innovation of mining and of Bitcoin.
Nodes are entities that run software that carries out the mining functions above. Nodes communicate using a P2P Network with its own protocol, and are the authors of the Bitcoin ledger and enforcers of the protocol rules.
Interestingly, the Bitcoin whitepaper makes no reference to the term ‘miner’ or the concept of ‘mining’. These terms cover the actions described in section 5 of the Bitcoin whitepaper which describes the responsibilities of nodes on the network.
It is possible to run the node client software without performing block assembly or proof-of-work. Such a setup can be used as an interface to the network for other systems such as block explorers, payment gateways and archives. Eventually it is expected that customised client software will be developed for each of these services so they will no longer be dependent on the node client to operate.
Computers that run a node client but which do not perform proof-of-work cannot append new blocks to the blockchain. This means they can neither express acceptance of valid blocks by working on extending them, nor reject invalid blocks by refusing to work on them. These computers exist as passive entities that follow the gatekeepers of the network, the miners.
Before a Bitcoin transaction can be committed to the blockchain it needs to be received and validated by a miner. If the miner deems the transaction valid, they add the transaction to one of several mempools. Mempools are temporary transaction stores and can be used to hold transactions grouped in different ways, such as transactions to be mined in the next block, transactions to watch, or transactions which cannot be mined due to an nLocktime/nSequence lock.
It is important to note every miner has their own mempools and that mempools vary across miners. It is also important to note that an individual transaction can be included in different mempools at the same time.
A miner takes the transactions it intends to include in the next block and hashes them into a merkle tree structure and includes the resulting merkle root within a candidate block header. The miner then hashes this candidate block header, attempting to find a valid proof-of-work.
A hash is a function that converts a string of data into a fixed length value that represents the original string, called the hash value. Every hash value is unique.
Hashing is a one-way function, meaning it is infeasible to determine what the input data is by looking at the hash produced from it. Conversely, it is trivial to run the same input data through the same hash function and reproduce the same hash. Because of this, a hash value of input data can be thought of as the digital fingerprint of that data. In Bitcoin mining, the input data is the 80-byte block header.
The hashing algorithm used in Bitcoin mining is SHA-256. SHA-256 stands for Secure Hash Algorithm – 256 bit. Passing the same block header data through this algorithm will always output the same 256-bit number. However if the header data is modified even by a single a bit a completely different and unrelated 256-bit number will result.
A miner cannot create a new block without finding a valid proof-of-work hash for the block header they are hashing. To be valid, the SHA-256d hash (which is just a number) of the block header must be less than another number, called the target. The target value is defined by the Bits field in the block header that is being hashed.
The target adjusts so that the average time it takes for the entire network to find a valid proof-of-work hash is ten minutes.
Because of the extraordinarily large SHA-256 target space, it is extremely unlikely that any given hash will be below the target. As a result of this, hashing entities invest large amounts of capital into specialized hashing hardware along with the associated electricity costs in order to produce as many of these hashes as possible in a given time period. Therefore, the only way a miner can append a block to the blockchain is through a substantial commitment of operational expenditure – proof-of-work.
The first transaction in every block is called the Coinbase transaction. The Coinbase transaction is a special transaction which pays bitcoins to the miner of the block. The Coinbase payment is made up of the subsidy amount and the sum of all transaction fees paid by transactions within the mined block.
Propagation and validation
If a miner finds a valid proof-of-work for the block header they are hashing, they immediately announce this by sending the entire block to other miners. Meanwhile, they start working on finding the next block in the chain.
Competing miners receive this block and immediately check that all transactions within the block, as well as the proof-of-work are valid. If the block is valid, they discontinue mining on top of the previous block and start working on hashing a new block header, building on the block just found by their competitor.
There are incentives at play here. First, winning ‘miner A’ strives to get their winning block to all other miners as quickly as possible. This reduces the possibility that competing ‘miner B’ (who found a valid block at approximately the same time) propagates their block to some miners before ‘miner A’ could. This opens up the possibility that ‘miner A’s’ block could later be orphaned and the Coinbase reward rendered invalid and unusable by ‘miner A’. The degree of bandwidth and connectivity to other miners can be seen as a competitive advantage and as such, the mining network tends toward a densely connected, small world structure with high bandwidth.
There also exists a competitive advantage in validating transactions. When validating a block, each transaction’s inputs must be looked up in the miner’s UTXO set to check they are unspent and the amount in satoshis is correct. Additionally, each input’s locking and unlocking scripts need to be run by the miner to assess whether each transaction is valid.
At any given point in time, two or more independent miners may mine a block at the same time. In this situation, nodes can be in disagreement about which of these blocks should be the tip of the blockchain.
Miners always follow the longest chain they deem to be valid. Eventually another block will be found that builds on one of the competing chain tips. Miners then switch to this tip provided they consider it to be valid. As such, any fork scenario is eventually resolved back to one persistent chain through the actions of the majority of hash power.
In this scenario, a block that doesn’t end up forming part of the longest chain is rejected by the network and called an Orphan Block. An orphan block represents wasted effort on the behalf of a miner and an incentive to invest in infrastructure in order to reduce the frequency of these events. However, orphans do not reduce the overall revenues of the Bitcoin system as the wasted work is not factored into the difficulty adjustment, thus if a certain percentage of hashing work is wasted due to the orphaned blocks, the difficulty will adjust downwards by a similar percentage, maintaining the same rate of valid block production overall. Additionally the fee paying transactions in the orphaned block will still be valid and included in the competing block or its descendants.
Competing valid blocks are not the only way that blocks end up being rejected. Any miner can refuse to build on any block for any reason. Such an action by a particular miner is only meaningful if the majority of miners carry out the same action. It is through this mechanism that the mining network can establish consensus on variables that are miner configurable – such as maximum block size. This is the basis of Nakamoto Consensus:
” They vote with their CPU power, expressing their acceptance of valid blocks by working on extending them and rejecting invalid blocks by refusing to work on them. Any needed rules and incentives can be enforced with this consensus mechanism.”
The mining ecosystem
An application-specific integrated circuit, or ASIC, is a microchip designed and manufactured for a very specific purpose. ASICs designed for Bitcoin mining were first released in 2013. For the amount of power they consume, they are vastly more energy efficient than predecessor approaches to mining – using CPU, GPU or FPGA.
Pooled mining is the use of a block template allocation system that provides distributed hashing infrastructure updated block headers against which they perform proof of work. This system of hash allocation to nodes is a primary part of Nakamoto Consensus in that individual operators of hash power can choose to re-allocate their hash to nodes producing blocks that meet their expectations in terms of maximised profitability and adherence to the Bitcoin ruleset. Miners who distribute block templates that don’t maximise profit or which attempt to implement changed rule sets risk the owners of the hash machinery they depend on re-deploying it to a different node on the network.
Stratum is an open-source mining protocol used by many mining pools. Stratum facilitates coordination between the mining pool operator and individual mining machines.
This content is based on content sourced from https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Mining under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0. Although it may have been extensively revised and updated we acknowledge the original authors.
Bitcoin’s true genius is more in its economic design than in any technical innovation. To create a payment system where participants do not have to rely an intermediary (such as a bank or payment processor) to facilitate transactions while also preventing “double-spending” of coins, Bitcoin had to create an incentive for multiple nodes in a network to maintain a copy of the same transaction ledger – so that network participants do not have to depend on any single keeper of the ledger. Bitcoin’s solution was for “miners” to provide computing power to keep a validated public history of the transactions.
Miners compete for the right to add new blocks (on average, every 10 minutes) to the blockchain. They win that right by solving a complex mathematical algorithm that requires significant computing power (“proof of work”) to find an extremely rare value and to validate and order transactions. It is like running computing servers randomly generating numbers until someone hits a lucky combination of winning lottery numbers. The first miner to find the extremely rare value wins the right to add the next block of validated transactions to the blockchain. This requires miners to run computing equipment constantly, at all hours, in a race to win each block.
Miners provide the computational investment to keep the Bitcoin ledger and secure the network. Thus, this block reward system economically incentivizes the miners to be rule enforcers. It uses a proof-of-work consensus mechanism to secure the network and have miners compete to validate transactions that get stored immutably on the blockchain.
Mining costs money – especially the electricity and maintenance costs needed to run computing equipment at all hours to compete for each block. Early in Bitcoin’s history, individuals could mine using their home computers and successfully win blocks. But mining has grown so large and specialized mining equipment has now emerged, so that mining has become professionalized. It now requires significant investments in hardware and possessing the technical expertise to run or participate in large scale data centers to successfully win blocks.
So, what are the economic incentives for miners to provide their computing power for the network? When a miner wins a block, it earns a block reward of Bitcoin that consists of two parts: (1) freshly released Bitcoin in a set number of coins – a time degrading static “subsidy” as their block reward; and (2) the transaction fees paid by senders for all transactions contained in their block.
The Bitcoin protocol issued (upon its original launch) 21 million coins, the total number that will ever exist in the Bitcoin system. For every block mined, the software releases a number of coins (the static subsidy amount per block) from that 21 million supply to the winning mining node who then can further distribute those coins to other networks users. In this manner, the Bitcoin system uses a competitive proof-of-work process, based upon a set of rules, to release more coins from the fully-issued 21 million coins approximately every 10 minutes.
The Bitcoin Protocol is set so that the static subsidy amount for each block cuts in half approximately every four years. The amount began as 50 coins per block; the Bitcoin protocol cuts this subsidy number in half approximately every 4 years, first to 25 coins and currently at 12.5 coins. In May 2020, the static subsidy per block halves again to 6.25 coins.
The static subsidy amount for each block mined continues to halve every 4 years until the total circulation of 21 million Bitcoins (which were issued into the system upon Bitcon’s launch) has been released, and then the subsidy completely vanishes. Thus, the static subsidy was never meant to be the primary source of revenue supporting miners. At the next halving in 2020, nearly 90% of all Bitcoins from the 21 million issued supply will have been released.
Instead, as the static subsidy (of newly minted Bitcoin) decreased, Bitcoin’s design intended for miners to earn more in the transaction fees from each block. Eventually, once the block reward vanishes, it must be permanently replaced by transaction fees.
For the miners to remain economically incentivized to continue to secure the Bitcoin Blockchain as the static subsidy continues to get cut in half, bigger block sizes are required. These bigger blocks are needed to fit millions and eventually billions of transactions, each generating more transaction fee revenue for the miners to offset the lost revenue from the reducing static subsidy.
Unfortunately, the BTC network has kept block size very small – just 1MB, which fits very few transactions. This will not provide miners enough transaction fee revenue as the fixed subsidy continues to cut in half.
Bitcoin SV restores Satoshi’s original vision. It uncaps the block size and makes data capacity unlimited; this means BSV can support blocks with huge numbers of transactions, which even with low transaction fees, can sustain mining profitability for years to come.
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